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Authority record

Canadian Creative Music Collective (CCMC)

  • 147681489
  • Corporate body
  • 1974-

Based on entry in The Canadian Encyclopedia:
"CCMC. 'Free music orchestra' formed in 1974 in Toronto as the Canadian Creative Music Collective. Only the abbreviation was in use by 1978. Defining itself as 'a composing ensemble... united by a desire to play music that is fluid, spontaneous, and self-regulating,' the CCMC, by its instrumentation, by the backgrounds of several of its founders, and by the improvised nature of its music, was initially aligned with the free jazz community.

Its original members were Peter Anson (guitar and later synthesizer); Graham Coughtry (trombone); Larry Dubin (percussion); Greg Gallagher (saxophones); Nobuo Kubota (saxophones); Allan Mattes (bass, bass guitar, electronics); Casey Sokol (piano); Bill Smith (saxophones); and Michael Snow (piano, trumpet, guitar, analogue synthesizer). Gallagher, Coughtry and Smith left 1976-7, Dubin died in 1978 and Anson departed in 1979. The remaining quartet was augmented by the drummer John Kamevaar in 1981. Sokol left in 1988, Kubota in 1991 and Damevaar and Mattes in 1994, and the vocalist Paul Dutton became a member in 1989 and John Oswald (alto sax) as of 1994. The CCMC began moving toward improvised electroacoustic music: instrumentation in 1990 comprised guitar-synthesizer and double bass (Mattes); wind synthesizer (Kubota); tapes and live electronic sampling (Kamevaar); voice (Dutton and Kubota); and piano (Snow).

After early performances in private, the CCMC established the Music Gallery in 1976, performing there on a twice-weekly basis until 1983, and later weekly. CCMC members were responsible for the gallery's operation until 1987 - Anson and Mattes 1976-80, Mattes alone thereafter - and established the Music Gallery Editions record label and Musicworks. After 2000, the CCMC's relationship with the Music Gallery ceased.

The CCMC has travelled widely, making four tours in Canada by 1982 and five in Europe 1978-85. It performed at the FIMAV (Festival international de musique actuelle de Victoriaville) in 1984 and again in 1997, at the 1984 summer Olympics in Los Angeles, at Expo 86, in Japan in 1988 and for New Music America, Montreal, in 1990. It later appeared in France (1998); Texas (1999); New York (2001); and in 2002 in England, the Netherlands, France and Germany. It has also played in various festivals in Canada, eg, Open Ears (Kitchener-Waterloo) and No Music Festival (London, Ont). The ensemble since 1995 has been a trio, consisting of Dutton (voice or soundsinging, harmonica); John Oswald (alto sax); and Snow (piano, analogue synthesizer).

Music Gallery Editions released six LPs recorded by the CCMC 1976-80: CCMC Vol 1 (MGE-1), CCMC Vol 2 (MGE-2), CCMC Vol 3 (MGE-6), Larry Dubin and the CCMC (3-MGE-15), Free Soap (MGE-22) and Without a Song (MGE-31). Two cassettes, CCMC 90, documenting the 1989-90 season at the Gallery, were issued in 1990. These were followed by the CDs Decisive Moments (TLR 02, 1994); Accomplices (VITOcd063, 1998) and CCMC + Christian Marclay (NMRx0003/ART MET CD004, 2002)."

Canadian Film Development Corporation

The Canadian Film Development Corporation (Telefilm Canada) was created by Act of Parliament in 1967 to foster and promote the development of a feature film industry in Canada. The plan called for direct investment in low-budget Canadian 'cultural films', but by 1973 the demands for a more commercial fare led the CFDC to promote international co-production, sometimes using foreign stars in the feature films. Many of the films produced under this arrangement were never released. In 1984 the CDFC was renamed Telefilm Canada.

Canadian Friends of Finland

  • 134795206
  • Corporate body
  • 1982-

The Canadian Friends of Finland (CFF) was founded in 1982 by a group of Finnish Canadian volunteers led by Professor Varpu Lindstrom of York University. The mandate of the CFF is to develop and promote friendly relations and cultural and educational connections between Canadians and Finns. Since its founding in Toronto, the CFF has established active branches in Montreal, Ottawa, and Vancouver. In 1990 the CFF established the CFF Education Foundation (CFFEF) to support the Finnish Studies Program at the University of Toronto.

Canadian Italian Business and Professional Association of Toronto

  • Corporate body

The Canadian Italian Business and Professional Association (CIBPA) of Toronto was founded in 1952 and incorporated on 21 December 1956 under its original name, the Canadian Italian Businessmen's Association (CIBA). The CIBA of Toronto began under the direction of a small group of Italian-Canadian businessmen and professionals, who included Anthony Andreoli, Sam Benedetto, Joseph D. Carrier, John de Toro, Remo de Carli, Eugenio Faludi, Neldo Lorenzetti, William Morrassutti, Vincent Paul, Sam Sorbara and Suilio Venchiarruti, who was the association's first president. Formed in response to the difficulties facing the large numbers of Italian Canadians in Toronto after World War II, the not-for-profit association assisted with the integration of new immigrants into Canadian society and raised funds for different causes. Throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, the CIBPA Toronto supported the formation and/or development of a number of charitable organizations, including the Italian Immigrant Aid Society (IIAS), the Centro Organizzativo Scuole Tecniche Italiane (COSTI), the Federazione di Associazioni e Club Italiani (FACI), the Italian Canadian Benevolent Corporation (ICBC), the Columbus Centre and the Villa Colombo Home for the Aged, as well as other charitable initiatives. In addition to its fundraising and charitable endeavours, as membership in the CIBPA Toronto grew, the association held monthly dinner meetings, business and professional networking events, and other special events with the aim of promoting business and social interaction between its members and with the wider community, which is the primary focus of the modern CIBPA Toronto.

The CIBPA Toronto is governed by a constitution and by-laws, which detail the association's objectives to "initiate and foster programs and activities for the welfare and betterment of the Italian and Canadian Italian communities, to promote and strengthen the image of the Canadian Italian community within Toronto and Canada, and to initiate and foster social and cultural interest and activities among its members and the Canadian Italian community." The CIBPA Toronto is managed by an elected board of directors comprised of an immediate past president, president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer and Ladies' Auxiliary representative. The board of directors oversees a number of permanent committees, including executive, legal, membership and nominating committees, and other rotating committees. CIBPA Toronto membership includes categories for full, youth, student, life, honorary and corporate members. In 1983, the CIBPA Toronto joined CIBPA Montreal to form the National Federation of Canadian Italian Business and Professional Associations, which now includes chapters in Hamilton, Niagara, Halifax, Ottawa, Sudbury, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay, Windsor, Winnipeg, Regina, Calgary, Windsor and Vancouver.

Canadian Law and Society Association/l’Association canadienne droit et société

  • //
  • Corporate body
  • 1982-

The Canadian Law and Society Association/l'Association canadienne droit et société is a group of scholars dedicated to the advancement of interdisciplinarity in legal and socio-legal scholarship in Canada and internationally. The association focuses on training in law, history, sociology, political science, criminology, psychology, anthropology, and economics as well as in other related areas. It awards prizes for socio-legal scholarship; holds a small midwinter meeting and a large annual conference and graduate student workshop; and publishes the "Canadian Journal of Law & Society/La revue canadienne droit et société." The CLSA/ACDS was formed in 1982 to provide a sense of intellectual community for a growing group of Canadian scholars interested in the relationship between law and society. In 1985 the association held a conference at the University of Montreal, where the decision to formally establish the association and journal was made. John McLaren was elected president with Peter Russell as vice-president, and the association obtained formal “learned society” status. The journal’s first issue appeared in 1986 under the editorship of Rainer Knopf. In recent years, the association has participated in independent and co-operative projects and conferences.

Canadian Native Friendship Centre (Edmonton, Alta.)

(from ANFC website)
The Friendship Centre Movement began in the mid-1950s when groups were formed in most urban areas across Canada to represent the interests of the increasing number of Indigenous peoples migrating from outlying reserves. These early Friendship Centres existed mainly as referral agencies between established social service organizations and urban Indigenous residents. Funding of these early centres was dependent on individual volunteers and their ability to raise operating funds though various fundraising events and private donations.

As the stream of new arrivals continued to grow throughout the 1960s, Friendship Centre staff became increasingly aware of the need to extend their services beyond a referral mandate. For this to be possible, increased organization and adequate funding for each Centre was necessary. To support this transition, in the late 1960s, Friendship Centres began organizing into Provincial/Territorial Associations (PTAs): unifying bodies aimed at providing administrative support to each of the local Friendship Centres within their specified region.

With the increased organization and supportive network that ensued from the creation of the PTAs, local Friendship Centres were able to expand their services beyond their referral mandate to concentrate on proactively encouraging and assisting Indigenous peoples to adjust and thrive more successfully in their new urban environment. With this refocus, both the public at large as well as Provincial and Federal governments began to recognize the viability and importance of the Friendship Centre Indigenous Self-Reliance Movement.

In 1972, the government of Canada’s support of the movement was formally recognized with her implementation of the Migrating Native Peoples Program (MNPP); providing operational funding to each of the then 40 Centres across Canada. The MNPP was renamed the Aboriginal Friendship Centre Program (AFCP) in 1988. The federal government’s commitment to supporting Friendship Centres has been ongoing with the renewal of the Aboriginal Friendship Centres Program. The AFCP program now provides core operational funding to 115 local Friendship Centres across Canada— 20 of which are located in communities throughout Alberta.

Canadian Science and Technology Historical Association

The Canadian Science and Technology Historical Association was established in 1980 to promote an interest in the scientific and technological heritage of Canada, through production of a scholarly journal, Scientia Canadensis, and the sponsoring of biennial conferences. Its membership is largely drawn from the fields of academe and government.

Canadian Society for the History and Philosophy of Science

The Canadian Society for the History and Philosophy of Science/Société canadienne pour l'histoire et philosophie des sciences (CSHPS/SCHPS) has a mandate to connect scholars in the interdisciplinary study of all aspects of science. It publishes a newsletter, Communiqué, and its annual conference takes place within the Congress of Social Sciences and Humanities.

Canadian Speakers' and Writers' Service Ltd.

  • F0280
  • Corporate body
  • 1950-2012

Canadian Speakers' and Writers' Service Ltd. was begun by Matie Molinaro in 1950. Since that time it has represented the interests of several leading Canadian authors, performers and speakers including Marshall McLuhan, Harry Boyle, Mavor Moore, Celia Franca, Lister Sinclair, Don Harron, and several others. The Service also ran a writer's retreat north of Toronto until the late 1980s. Molinaro has also acted as a ghost-writer, written publicity, and translated material in her career as president of CSWS.

Canadian Theatre Review

The Canadian Theatre Review was Canada's first quarterly theatre journal and was established at York University in 1974 as a publishing project of the Faculty of Fine Arts and the Department of Theatre. It grew out of a Theatre Department publication called the York Theatre Journal which began in about 1970. Both publications were initially edited by faculty members Don Rubin and Ross Stuart.

The first issue of CTR appeared in January 1974 and it set the model for the journal's issues thereafter: themed issues, a full-length playscript, short essays on a variety of subjects and book reviews. Within 24 months, the journal expanded into theatre book publishing and began using the more comprehensive designation CTR Publications. In addition to the journal,

CTR Publications, under Rubin's general editorship, published some two dozen separate volumes including the archival series "Canada on Stage" (1974-1988), the four-volume "Canada's Lost Plays" series and historical volumes such as Toby Gordon Ryan's "Stage Left: Canadian Theatre in the Thirties". In 1982, Rubin turned the editorship over to Robert Wallace of Glendon College and its production to the University of Toronto Press.

When Wallace left as editor, the publication was taken over by the University of Guelph and edited by Alan Filewod, a Guelph Theatre professor and a graduate of the York Theatre Department when the journal first began.

Canfield, Cass

Cass Canfield (publisher, editor, and author) was born in New York on April 26, 1897. Canfield was president of the publishing house Harper & Row (formerly Harper & Brothers) from 1931 to 1945, chairman of the board from 1945 to 1955, and chairman of the executive committee from 1955 to 1967. He was responsible for publishing books by several notable and prize-winning authors including James Thurber, Thornton Wilder, John F. Kennedy, and Adlai E. Stevenson. Canfield is the author of Up and Down and Around (1971) and The Iron Will of Jefferson Davis (1978), among other titles.

Caplan, Dave

  • Person
  • 1925-2000

Dave Caplan (1925-2000) was born in Toronto, Ontario, and began his working career as an apprentice tailor, eventually establishing is own business as a custom tailor. Caplan's true passion was for jazz music and jazz musicians and by 1950 he was already pursuing any possibility of working as a jazz promoter and booking agent. During the 1960s he wrote regular columns for The Toronto Star and The Toronto Telegram newspapers, among other publications. He also was successful in hosting a jazz radio show for a time on CKEY, worked on jazz benefit programs at every opportunity, and was recognized as a knowledgeable jazz spokesman on radio and televisions talk shows.

Caplan, Gerald L., 1938-

  • Person

Gerald Lewis Caplan, public affairs commentator and consultant, was born on 8 March 1938 and educated at the University of Toronto (B.A., 1960 ; M.A., 1961) and the University of London where he received his PhD in African Studies from the School of Oriental and African Studies in 1977. In 1965-1966, he lectured at the University College of Rhodesia following which he was an Associate Professor at the Ontario Institute in Studies in Education from 1967 until 1977. From 1970-1977, he was Senior Adviser to and Campaign Manager for the New Democratic Party of Ontario under leader Stephen Lewis. He was Director of the CUSO-Nigeria Program (1977-1979), Canadian Director of CUSO (1979), Director, City of Toronto Health Advocacy Unit (1980-1982), Federal Secretary, New Democratic Party of Canada (1982-1984), National Campaign Manager, NDP General Election (1984), Co-chair, Government of Canada Task Force on Broadcasting Policy (1985-1986), Co-chair, Royal Commission on Learning, Ontario (1993-1995), Director of Research and Strategic Issues, Ontario NDP Party Caucus (1998-1999) and, most recently Visiting Scholar, Economic Commission for Africa and Research Associate, Centre for Refugee Studies, York University (2000). Over the course of his career, Caplan has been a syndicated columnist for the Toronto Star (1984-1993) and television commentator. He is the author of several monographs including ’The Elites of Barotseland, 1878-1969 : A Political History of Zambia’s Western Province’ (1970), ’The Dilemma of Canadian Socialism : The C.C.F. in Ontario’ (1973), ’Just Causes : Notes of an Unrepentant Socialist’ (1993), ’Rwanda : The Preventable Genocide’ (1994) and principle author of the UNICEF State of the World Report (1996, 1997) in addition to numerous articles, book reviews and reports.

Cappon, Daniel

Daniel Cappon (1921-2002), psychiatrist and educator, was born in England on 6 June 1921. He graduated from the University of London in 1944, and was trained in medicine at St. Mary's Hospital in London. He oversaw a psychiatric hospital and medical division in the Far East from 1945 to 1948, treating repatriated prisoners of war in Burma and India. Cappon emigrated to Canada in 1950 following postgraduate work in psychiatry in the United Kingdom. He was first associate, later professor of psychiatry at the University of Toronto (1950-1969), and joined York University as a professor in the Faculty of Environmental Studies in 1970. He wrote several studies including "Toward understanding homosexuality" (1964), "Eating, loving and dying" (1975), and "Coupling" (1983). Cappon served as an analytical therapist in Toronto since 1950, was a founding member of the McLuhan Institute at the University of Toronto, and served as an architectural consultant on several projects including Expo 67 and the CN Tower. He died in 2002.

Carlile, William W.

  • Person
  • 15 June 1862 - 3 January 1950

(from WIkipedia entry)
Sir William Walter Carlile, 1st Baronet OBE, DL, JP (15 June 1862 – 3 January 1950) was a British Conservative Party politician from Gayhurst in Buckinghamshire who served from 1895 to 1906 as the Member of Parliament (MP) for the Buckingham or (Northern) division of Buckinghamshire.

Carlile was the only son of James Walter Carlile of Ponsbourne Park in Hertfordshire and his wife Mar (née Whiteman) from Glengarr in Argyll.[3] He was educated at Harrow and at Clare College, Cambridge,[4] and later became a Lieutenant of the 3rd Volunteer Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry.

He held several offices in the county: as a Justice of the Peace, a Deputy Lieutenant (having been appointed in 1897), and an Alderman of Buckinghamshire County Council.

Carlile first stood for Parliament at the 1892 general election, when he was defeated in Buckingham by the sitting Liberal Party MP Herbert Samuel Leon. He won the seat at the next election, in 1895, on a swing of 4.5%, and was re-elected in 1900. He stood down from the House of Commons at the 1906 general election, when Buckingham was won by the Liberal Frederick William Verney.

In 1886, Carlile married Blanche Anne Cadogan, daughter of the Rev, Edward Cadogan of Wicken, Northamptonshire.

His residence was listed in 1901 as Gayhurst House in Newport Pagnell, Buckinghamshire, a late-Elizabethan stone mansion house formerly owned by Everard Digby, one of the conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Set in well-wooded park of 250 acres (1.0 km2), it has been described as "one of the most charming examples of Elizabethan architecture in the county".

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at: .

Carnegie, Louise Whitfield

  • Person
  • March 7, 1857 - 24 June 1946

(from Wikipedia entry)

Louise Whitfield Carnegie (March 7, 1857 – June 24, 1946) was the wife of philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. After Carnegie's death Louise continued making charitable contributions to organizations including American Red Cross, the Y.W.C.A., the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, numerous World War II relief funds, and $100,000 to the Union Theological Seminary. She spent her summers at Skibo Castle.

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at: .

Carol, Hans, 1915-1971

  • Person

Hans Carol (1915-1971), educator and author, was appointed professor and chair of the Department of Geography at York University in 1962. He remained chair until

1967 when he took up an appointment as director of the Graduate Programme in Geography, remaining in that post until shortly before his death. His early interest was in African geography and the urban geography of Zurich, but he became increasingly interested in the theory and methodology of geographic study in his later years.

Carpenter, William Lant

(from Wikipedia entry)

William Lant Carpenter was born in 1841 in Bristol, Somerset, England. William married Annie Viret in 1868 in Bristol, England. Annie was born in 1841 in Middlesex, England. Parents: Louisa Powell and William Benjamin Carpenter MD CB FRS (29 October 1813 – 19 November 1885) an English physician, invertebrate zoologist and physiologist. He was instrumental in the early stages of the unified University of London.

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at: .

Carr, Herbert Wildon

(from Wikipedia entry)

Herbert Wildon Carr (16 January 1857 – 8 July 1931) was a British philosopher, Professor of Philosophy, King's College, London from 1918 until 1925 and Visiting Professor at the University of Southern California from 1925 until his death. Part of The Aristotelian Society.

For more information, see WIkipedia entry at: .


  • Corporate body

'Cartographica' is considered to be the foremost journal in its field, publishing articles on latest developments of in cartography. It was formed by the union of 'Canadian cartographer,' and 'Cartographica,' and has long been associated with the Geography Department of York University.

Carus, Dr. Paul

(from Wikipedia entry)

Paul Carus, PhD (18 July 1852 – 11 February 1919) was a German-American author, editor, a student of comparative religion and philosopher. Carus was born at Ilsenburg, Germany, and educated at the universities of Strassburg (then Germany, now France) and Tübingen, Germany. After obtaining his PhD from Tübingen in 1876
he served in the army and then taught school. He had been raised in a
pious and orthodox Protestant home, but gradually moved away from this
He left Bismarck's Imperial Germany for the United States, "because of his liberal views". After he immigrated to the USA (in 1884) he lived in Chicago, and in LaSalle, Illinois. Paul Carus married Edward C. Hegeler's daughter Mary (Marie) and the couple later moved into the Hegeler Carus Mansion, built by her father. They had six children.

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at: .

Cashore, Harvey

Harvey Cashore, journalist and writer, grew up near Vancouver, British Columbia. He moved to Ottawa in 1982 to attend Carleton University, graduating with a Bachelor of Journalism in 1987. In 1986, Cashore began working for author John Sawatsky on a book on the Ottawa lobbying industry, where he first began investigating the Airbus affair. In 1987, Cashore continued working with Sawatsky as a research associate on his book, "Mulroney : the politics of ambition." During the "Mulroney" project Cashore cultivated sources in the Prime Minister's inner circle, some of whom would prove valuable in later years as the Airbus story gained momentum. Cashore was hired as a researcher in the Ottawa bureau of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) in 1989, later returning to work on the Mulroney biography published in 1991. That year, he joined CBC's "The Fifth Estate" as a researcher, becoming an associate producer in 1993 and a producer in 1995. He also worked as producer and senior editor for the CBC's "Disclosure," a television series devoted to investigative journalism. Cashore now serves as senior producer for CBC News' Special Investigations Unit. Cashore's investigative work has garnered nominations and awards from the Canadian Association of Journalists, Investigative Reporters and Editors (IRE), the Canadian Bar Association, the Hillman Foundation, the Michener Awards Foundation, the Geminis and the Screen Awards. He is also the co-author (with Stevie Cameron) of "The Last amigo : Karlheinz Schreiber and the anatomy of a scandal" (2001), which received the Best Crime Non-Fiction Book of the Year Arthur Ellis Award (Crime Writers' of Canada), and author of "The Truth shows up : a reporter's fifteen-year odyssey tracking down the truth about Mulroney, Schreiber and the Airbus scandal" (2010).

Casto, Robert Clayton

Robert Clayton Casto (b. 31 May 1932, d. 5 April 1998), English professor and writer, was born in Cleveland, Ohio. He received his B.A. from Yale University in 1954 and completed his M.A. and M.F.A. at the University of Iowa in 1965 and 1966 respectively before finishing his M.Litt. at Oxford in 1968. He was Assistant Professor of English at State University College, Oneonta, New York from 1968-1970. He held a similar position at York University from 1970 to 1974, and from 1974 until his death was Assistant Professor of English. In addition to his academic work, Casto also published several volumes of poetry including A Strange and Fitful Land (1959), The Arrivals (1980) and Human Gardens (ca. 1998) and had individual poems appear in numerous journals, reviews and magazines. He was editor of the literary journal Waves from 1972-1980 and was a member of the Association of Canadian University Teachers of English, the Modern Language Association of America, the Elizabethan Club of Yale University and the Poetry Society of America.

Cavendish, Lady Lucy Caroline

(from Wikipedia entry)

Lady Frederick Cavendish (Lucy Caroline; née Lyttelton; 5 September 1841 – 22 April 1925) was a pioneer of women's education.
A daughter of George Lyttelton, 4th Baron Lyttelton, she married into another aristocratic family, the Cavendishes, in 1864. Eighteen years later her husband, Lord Frederick Cavendish, was murdered in Dublin by Irish nationalists. After his death she devoted much of her time to the cause of girls' and women's education, for which she was honoured in her lifetime with an honorary degree, and posthumously when, in 1965, Cambridge University named its first post-graduate college for women after her.

Fore more information, see Wikipedia entry at: .

Cecil, Lord Adalbert

(from Wikipedia entry)

Lord Adalbert Cecil (18 July 1841- 12 June 1889) was the son of the second Marquis of Exeter. He was born 18th July 1841. A member of the Plymouth Bretheren, Cecil was a missionary in Britain, before travelling to Canada. Here he was called to higher service in a tragic manner as this newspaper report indicates: "Lord Adalbert Cecil was drowned on the 12th of June near Adolphustown, Western Canada, through the upsetting of his boat as he was crossing the bay of Quinte to regain his camp. Buried in Napanee, Ontario. Little is related concerning his early boyhood but as a young man he seems to have come under the influence of the well-known missioner, Rev. William Haslam. The conversion story is in one of his books entitled "Lord A—" referring to Lord Adalbert. After his conversion to God he made rapid progress in divine things, becoming an earnest evangelistic worker and one able to minister the word to profit. In his position he was free to devote all his energies to the work nearest to his heart, and so was "always abounding in the work of the Lord".

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at:,_2nd_Marquess_of_Exeter as well as .

Centre for Experimental Art and Communication (Toronto, Ont.)

The Centre for Experimental Art and Communication (CEAC) was created in Toronto in 1975 by the Kensington Arts Association, an avant-garde artists collective. The Centre acted as a studio, resource centre, museum, gallery and performance space for the collective. It also acted as the host for visiting acts and artists in the areas of performance art, behaviour workshops, contextualism, visual arts (especially video art) and other post-modern art forms. The CEAC collective also produced events which were showcased in Europe, the United States, South America and, to a lesser extent, Canada. The Centre was the sight of 'Crash and burn,' a punk-rock musical venue in the mid-1970s. The Centre alienated funding bodies in the late 1970s when a copy of 'Strike', a journal associated with CEAC, was charged with promoting violent overthrow of authority, and CEAC was forced to close in 1980.

Ch'en, Jerome

Jerome Ch'en (1919- ), teacher and author, was a professor at York University 1971-1987, serving in the Department of History, and later as the director of the University of Toronto/York University Joint Centre on Modern East Asia (1983-1985). He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada (1980) and in 1984 was named Distinguished Research Professor at York. Professor Ch'en (PhD London, 1956) was a scholar in the field of Chinese history and his many publications in the area include 'The highlanders of Central China: a history 1895-1937,' (1992), 'Mao and the Chinese Revolution,' (1965) which was translated into several languages, 'The military-gentry coalition -- the warlords period in modern Chinese history,' (1980) as well as translations of others works, edited collections, and several articles in scholarly journals and conference proceedings. Professor Ch'en retired from York in 1987.

Charles, David Orin, 1944-

  • Person

David Orin Charles (1944- ) was born in Toronto and educated at Oakwood Collegiate Institute, where he was active member of the Masquers, a student drama group, as an actor and set designer. His interest in theatre and design continued through his university education at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, and at the University of New Mexico in Las Cruces, where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts in 1964 and participated in theatre productions. During this period, from 1962 until 1969, Charles was also an announcer and producer for radio. After returning to Toronto in the early 1970s, Charles was employed by CFTO-TV, becoming a prop master for a variety of in-house television programs. His long career in film and television began in earnest during this time, and after leaving CFTO-TV, he began to work as a freelance set decorator and prop master for television commercials and for film and television productions based in Toronto, also working with Schulz Productions and Talent Associates. He is a member of the Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television and the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE). During his career, David Charles has worked in set decoration and design for many film productions including "The paper chase" (1973), "Meatballs" (1979), "Porky's" (1982) "Millennium" (1988), "The long kiss goodnight" (1995), "Crash" (1995), "Universal soldier" (1997), "Good Will Hunting" (1997) and "Hairspray" (2006), as well as numerous television productions including "The Swiss family Robinson" (1974), "SCTV" (1982-1983), "Amerika" (1985), "Robocop: the series" (1994), and most recently "Covert affairs" (2010) and "Warehouse 13" (2010). In addition to his film and television production work, Charles received his Bachelor of Education in 1985 and a Master of Arts in 1986 from the University of Toronto and has worked as a secondary school teacher in the Toronto and York District School Boards.

Childbirth by Choice Trust

The Childbirth by Choice Trust, founded in 1982, was the research arm of CARAL, the Canadian Abortion Rights Action League (founded in 1973 as the Canadian Association for the Repeal of the Abortion Law and renamed in 1980) and disbanded in 2005. The purpose of the organization was to educate the public on the issues of birth control, abortion and, family planning, and to advocate for legal and easily available abortion services in Canada.

Chretien, Jean

  • Person
  • 1934 -

Jean Chretien, politician, lawyer and long-time parliamentarian, was Canada's 20th prime minister, and one of the longest-serving leaders in Canada's history.

Christie, Robert, 1913-1996

Robert Christie was an actor, director and drama instructor. He was born in Toronto, Ontario on 20 September 1913 and received his B.A. from Victoria College, University of Toronto in 1934. He distinguished himself as an actor in the 1933 Dominion Drama Festival before joining the John Holden Players in 1934. In 1936, Christie moved to England where he appeared in both provincial repertory theatre and the West End. He appeared in a London production of 'The Zeal of Thy House' before spending the 1938-1939 season with the Old Vic Company. He served in the Canadian Army from 1940 to 1945, after which he returned to Toronto and worked in the CBC Radio Drama Department. He also became a prominent member of the New Play Society appearing in such plays as Morley Callaghan's 'Going Home' (1950), John Coulter's 'Riel' (1950) and Mavor Moore's 'Sunshine Town' (1955). Christie joined the Stratford Festival Company in 1953 and performed in its first four seasons. He later appeared on Broadway in Stratford's production of Christopher Marlowe's 'Tamburlaine' (1956) and in Robertson Davies' 'Love and Libel' (1960). In 1967 he starred as Norah Hatch in the CBC series 'Hatch's Mill'. In addition to appearing in numerous other television and radio programs, Christie was also a teacher of acting in the Theatre Department, Ryerson Polytechnic Institute and was a member of the Actors' Equity Association, the Association of Canadian Radio and TV Artists, and the Arts and Letters Club of Toronto. He won the John Drainie Award in 1984. He died in 1996 in Toronto.

Church, Richard Wiliam

(from Wikipedia entry)

Richard William Church (25 April 1815 – 6 December 1890) was an English churchman and writer, known latterly as Dean Church. Richard William was the eldest of three sons of John Dearman Church, a
wine merchant, and his wife Bromley Caroline Metzener (d. 1845). His grandfather Matthew Church, a merchant of Cork, and his wife, were Quakers, and John had not been baptized into the Church of England
until the time of his marriage in 1814. His uncle, General Sir Richard Church (1784–1873), achieved fame as a liberator of Greece.
The family moved in 1818 to Florence. After his father's death in 1828 his mother settled in Bath, and he was sent to a strict evangelical school at Redland, Bristol. He was admitted in 1832 to Wadham College, Oxford, where he took first-class honours in 1836. His mother, meanwhile, was remarried to Thomas Crokat, a widowed Englishman of Leghorn.
In 1838, he was elected fellow of Oriel College. One of his contemporaries, Richard Mitchell, commenting on this election, said: "There is such a moral beauty about Church that they could not help taking him." He was appointed tutor of Oriel in 1839 and was ordained the same year. He was a close friend of John Henry Newman in this period and closely allied to the Tractarian movement. In 1841 Tract 90 of Tracts for the Times appeared and Church resigned his tutorship. From 1844 to 1845, Church was junior proctor and, in that capacity and in concert with his senior colleague, vetoed a proposal to censure Tracts publicly. In 1846, with others, he started The Guardian newspaper and he was an early contributor to The Saturday Review. In 1850 he became engaged to H.F. Bennett, of a Somersetshire family, a niece of George Moberly, Bishop of Salisbury. After again holding the tutorship of Oriel, he accepted in 1858 the small living of Whatley in Somerset near Frome and was married in the following year. He was a diligent parish priest and a serious student and contributed largely to current literatureIn 1888 his only son died; his own health declined, and he appeared for the last time in public at the funeral of Henry Parry Liddon on 9 September 1890, dying on 9 December in the same year, at Dover. He was buried at Whatley. The dean's chief published works are a Life of St Anselm (1870), the lives of Spenser (1879) and Bacon (1884) in Macmillan's "Men of Letters" series, an Essay on Dante (1878), The Oxford Movement (1891), together with many other volumes of essays and sermons. A collection of his journalistic articles was published in 1897 as Occasional Papers.

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at: .

Chute, Arthur Hunt, 1890-1929

  • Person
  • 1890-1929

Arthur Hunt Chute, writer, was born in Illinois and grew up in Halifax and Wolfville, Nova Scotia, and attended Acadia University. His respect for the sea, the people who worked on it, and his taste for travel and adventure were reflected in both his fiction and his journalism.

City Art

  • Corporate body

Clark, Eliza, 1963-

Eliza Clark (1963- ), writer, was born in Toronto, Ont. and educated at York University (B.F.A., 1985) and the Banff School of Fine Arts (1988). She worked as a television producer and editor before writing fiction full time. She has taught creative writing at Ryerson Polytechnic University, the Humber School for Writers in Toronto and York University. Clark's major publications include "Miss you like crazy" (1991), which was short listed for the Trillium Award (1991) and the Stephen Leacock Medal (1992), "What you need" (1994), short listed for the Giller Prize (1994), "Butterflies and bottlecaps" (1996), "Seeing and believing" (1999, in collaboration with Vladyana Langer Krykorka) and "Bite the stars" (1999). Her work "Pride and joy" was adapted as a radio drama for CBC's Morningside.

Clark, William Warner

  • F0669
  • Person
  • fl. 1859-1872

William Warner Clark was a Wesleyan Methodist minister who preached on the Blenheim Circuit in Canada West, as well as in Toronto and New York.

Clarke, Alan, 1929-.

  • Person

Alan Clarke advisor, educator and public servant, was born in Stratford, Ontario on August 1, 1929. He received a B.A. from the University of Toronto in 1957 in addition to receiving an honorary doctorate from York University in 1992 in recognition for his role as secretary of its Planning Committee from 1956-1958. He also spent two summers while attending U. of T. with Frontier College as a labourer-teacher on a railway gang. From 1950 to 1960, he was Secretary of the YMCA in Toronto following which he was Executive Director of the Canadian Citizenship Council (1960-1966), the Canadian Centenary Council and the Company of Young Canadians (1966-1968), respectively. He was President of CRD Training Associates Ltd. (1969-1970), Director of the Demonstrative Project on Community Development at Algonquin College (1970-1971) and Director of its School of Continuing Education (1971-1985). In 1985 and 1986, Clarke acted as advisor to the Canadian Emergency Coordinator for African Famine and was later Communications Advisor for the International Joint Commission (1986-1996), a Member of the Canadian Delegation to the UNESCO General Conference in Paris (1987), Chair of the European Joint Study Meeting on the Impact of New Technologies on Culture in Rural Areas, Paris (1983), participant at the Experts Meeting of European Joint Studies in the Field of Education, Vienna (1982) and Founder and First Chair of the Board of Directors for the Movement for Canadian Literacy (1978). He has also been the director of the United Nations Association in Canada as well as the Millennium Council of Canada. Clarke was a contributing editor to Strong and Free : A Response to the War Measures Act, 1970 and is the author of several papers and reports in the fields of adult education, public participation, human rights, citizenship and education and community development.

Clarkson, Margaret

  • Person

Margaret Clarkson is a friend of Margaret Avison whom she met at Knox Presbyterian Church in 1969 and with whom she corresponded regularly in the early 1970's. Margaret Avison (1918- ) is an outstanding Canadian poet, with a special focus on Christian poetry, who has won many awards and honours for her work.

Clifford, Lucy

(from Wikipedia and ODNB entries)

Lucy Clifford (2 August 1846 – 21 April 1929) was born Lucy Lane in London, the daughter of John Lane and Louisa Ellen, née Gaspey (d. 1901) of Barbados. She married the mathematician and philosopher William Kingdon Clifford in 1875. After his death in 1879, she earned a prominent place in English literary life as a novelist, and later as a dramatist. Her best-known story, Mrs Keith's Crime (1885), was followed by several other volumes, such as Aunt Anne (1892). She also wrote The Last Touches and Other Stories (1892) and Mere Stories (1896); and a play, A Woman Alone (1898). She is perhaps most often remembered, however, as the author of The Anyhow Stories, Moral and Otherwise (1882), a collection of stories written for her children.

W. K. Clifford renounced his father's inheritance to the benefit of the latter's second, much younger family. He could not have foreseen that he was to fall ill and die quite soon after this gesture, leaving his wife and two small daughters almost penniless. Clifford's friends organized a testimonial fund which helped the young widow for a short while but she soon decided to take matters into her own hands, resuming her career as a writer and continuing the salon which had enjoyed such a distinctive reputation during her marriage. Regular visitors of Clifford's at-homes were Leslie Stephen, Frederick Pollock, John Collier, Frederick Macmillan, and, for a while, the controversial ‘Vernon Lee’ (Violet Paget). At this time Henry James became one of Lucy Clifford's most prized friends, and their correspondence was extensive.

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at: and .

Clodd, Edward

(from Wikipedia entry)

Edward Clodd (1 July 1840, Margate, Kent – 16 March 1930) was an English banker, writer and anthropologist. He was the only surviving child of 7. He cultivated a very wide circle of literary and scientific friends, who periodically met at Whitsun gatherings at his home at Aldeburgh, Suffolk. Although born in Margate, where his father was captain of a trading brig, the family moved soon afterwards to Aldeburgh, his father's ancestors deriving from Parham and Framlingham in Suffolk. Born to a Baptist family, his parents wished him to become a minister, but he declined and instead went into accountancy and banking, moving to London in 1855.
He first worked for free for 6 months at an accountant's office in Cornhill in London when it was 14.
He worked for the London Joint Stock Bank from 1872 to 1915, and had residences both in London and Suffolk. He married his wife Eliza Garman, a doctor's daughter in 1862. He had 8 children with Eliza, though 2 died when they were young. Clodd was an early follower of the work of Charles Darwin and had personal acquaintance with Thomas Huxley and Herbert Spencer. He wrote biographies of all three men, and worked to popularise evolution through books like The Childhood of the World and The Story of Creation: A Plain Account of Evolution.
Clodd was an agnostic and wrote that the Genesis creation narrative of the Bible is similar to other religious myths and should not be read as a literal account. He wrote many popular books on evolutionary science. He wrote a biography of Thomas Henry Huxley and was a lecturer and popularizer of anthropology and evolution.
He was also a keen folklorist, joining the Folklore Society from 1878, and later becoming its president. He was chairman of the Rationalist Press Association from 1906 to 1913. He was a Suffolk Secretary of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia from 1914-1916. He was a prominent member and officer of
the Omar Khayyam Club or 'O.K. Club', and organized the planting of the rose from Omar Khayyam's tomb onto the grave of Edward Fitzgerald at Boulge, Suffolk, at the Centenary gathering. Clodd was a critic of the paranormal and psychical research which he wrote were the result of superstition and the outcome of ignorance. He criticised the spiritualist writings of Oliver Lodge as non-scientific. His book Question: A Brief History and Examination of Modern Spiritualism (1917) exposed fraudulent mediumship and the irrational belief in spiritualism.
Clodd had a talent for friendship, and liked to entertain his friends at literary gatherings in Aldeburgh at his seafront home there, Strafford House, at Whitsuntide. Prominent among his literary friends
and correspondents were Grant Allen, George Meredith, Thomas Hardy, George Gissing, Edward Fitzgerald, Andrew Lang, Cotter Morison, Samuel Butler, Mary Kingsley and Mrs Lynn Linton: he also counted Sir Henry Thompson, Sir William Huggins, Sir Laurence Gomme, Sir John Rhys, Paul Du Chaillu, Edward Whymper, Alfred Comyn Lyall, York Powell, William Holman Hunt, Sir E. Ray Lankester, H.G. Wells
and many others in his immediate circle. His hospitality and friendship was an important cement in the development of their social connections.

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at: .

Close, Francis, 1797-1882

  • Person
  • 1797-1882

Francis Close (July 11, 1797 – December 18,1882) was the Anglican Rector of Cheltenham (1826–1856), and Dean of Carlisle from 1856–1881. He received his Bachelor of Arts from St. John's College, Cambridge in 1820, and was elevated to MA in 1825. During the same time period, he was ordained a deacon in 1820, and as a priest the following year. In 1822 he was assigned as curate of Willesden and Kingsbury in the London area. In 1824, he was assigned to Cheltenham and the parish church of St Mary's, and when the rector died in 1826, he was elevated to that office.

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation

The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was founded in Calgary in 1932 by a number of socialist, labour, agrarian, and co-operative groups with the aims of economic reform. With the signing of the Regina Manifesto (1933), the movement became an electoral political party and enjoyed great success in the province of Saskatchewan where it formed the provincial government for several years. The CCF also enjoyed limited success in Ontario (Official Opposition in 1943), as well as on the federal scene. In 1961, the CCF was succeeded by the New Democratic Party (NDP) after forming an alliance with the Canadian Labour Congress.

Cockburn, Sir John

(from Wikipedia entry)

Sir John Alexander Cockburn, KCMG (23 August 1850 – 26 November 1929) was Premier of South Australia from 27 June 1889 until 18 August 1890.

Cockburn was born in Corsbie, Berwickshire, Scotland in 1850 to Thomas Cockburn, farmer, and his wife Isabella, née Wright. His father died in France in 1855, and his mother migrated to South Australia in 1867 with three of the four children. Cockburn remained in the UK and was educated at Highgate School, and King's College London, he obtained the degree of M.D. London, with first class honours and gold medal. In 1875 he married Sarah Holdway (the daughter of Forbes Scott Brown) and they had one son and one daughter.

In 1879 he emigrated to South Australia and set up practice at Jamestown in the mid North.
In 1878 Cockburn was elected as the first mayor of Jamestown. In that role he lobbied the Government of South Australia to construct a railway line to the New South Wales border to tap the newly developed silver mining fields of the Barrier Ranges.
Cockburn stood for Burra in the South Australian House of Assembly in 1884, serving as Minister of Education from 1885 - 1887 (under premier John Downer) before losing that seat and returning as member for Mount Barker, elected in April 1887 and holding that seat for 11 years.
In 1884 Cockburn was able to pass progressive legislation including succession duties and land tax, and in 1886 was involved in introducing payment for members of the South Australian parliament.

On 27 June 1889 Cockburn became the first doctor to become Premier, a role he held for fourteen months before losing a no-confidence motion and handing back to Thomas Playford.

He was Minister for Education again and Minister for Agriculture in the Kingston ministry from 1893 until April 1898.

He was active in the planning of Federation, including representing South Australia at the Melbourne conference in 1890 and in Sydney in 1891.
Cockburn supported the Women's Suffrage League throughout their campaign and frequently spoke its meetings. He chaired the league's final meeting as well as its celebration event when suffrage was granted. He continued to play a part in women's suffrage upon his return to London and along with his wife were active in the suffragette movement in England.
After resigning from parliament, he went to England to serve as Agent-General for South Australia. He resigned in 1901 when the position was downgraded (due to federation), but remained in London and unofficially represented South Australia and Australia in many things.
He had a long career in Freemasonry, beginning with his initiation in 1876. He would go on to help establish the Grand Lodge of South Australia, and to serve in several high offices within it. After his return to England, he founded a new lodge in London and served as president of the International Masonic Club. As a Masonic Rosicrucian he was attracted to esoteric and philosophical subjects, and published several dozen articles exploring such themes in various Masonic periodicals.

He was created Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) in the New Year Honours list January 1900, and a Knight of Grace of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England (KGStJ) in August 1901.

He died in London in 1929 without ever returning to Australia. His wife, son and daughter survived him.

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at:

Codrington, Dr. R.H.

(from Encyclopedia Brittanica entry)

R.H. Codrington, in full Robert Henry Codrington (born Sept. 15, 1830, Wroughton, Wiltshire, Eng.—died Sept. 11, 1922, Chichester, Sussex), Anglican priest and early anthropologist who made the first systematic study of Melanesian society and culture and whose reports of his observations remain ethnographic classics.
Codrington became a fellow of Wadham College, Oxford (1855), and took holy orders in 1857. He emigrated to Nelson, N.Z., in 1860 and joined the Melanesian Mission, which he headed from 1871 to 1877. He traveled throughout Melanesia, making his principal observations in the New Hebrides, the Solomons, and the smaller islands lying between them. He gathered a great body of data on all major aspects of Melanesian life and society, including kinship, marriage, property, secret societies, folklore, ritual, and especially religion.Returning to England, Codrington served as vicar of Wadhurst, Sussex (1888–93), and examining chaplain to the bishop of Chichester (1894–1901). During those years he devoted himself to the scholarly preparation of his writings and to enjoying the companionship of such figures as Lewis Carroll, William Ewart Gladstone, and Cardinal John Henry Newman. In his writings Codrington attempted to give a representative picture of island life before contact with European culture. Melanesian Languages (1885), which dealt with the phonology, grammar, and vocabulary of the languages of the New Hebrides and the Solomon, Torres Straits, Loyalty, and other islands, is still considered relevant for the study of the Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) languages. Codrington’s other linguistic work, A Dictionary of the Language of Mota, Sugarloaf Islands, Banks’ Islands (1896), was written jointly with J. Palmer. Codrington’s ethnographic work, The Melanesians: Studies in Their Anthropology and Folklore (1891), deals at length with the concepts of mana, magic, and related phenomena, and with social structure and secret societies.

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at:

Colenso, John William, 1814-1883

  • Person
  • 1814-1883

John William Colenso (1814–1883), first Church of England Bishop of Natal, mathematician, theologian, Biblical scholar and social activist.

Coles, Don

Donald Langdon Coles (1927-2017), poet, author and educator, was born in Woodstock, Ontario in 1928 and received a B.A. and an M.A. from the University of Toronto in 1949 and 1953. He received an M.A. from Cambridge University in 1955, following which he lived for ten years in continental Europe. From 1965 to 1996, Coles was a professor of humanities and creative writing at York University in Toronto, Canada. He was the Poetry Editor of "The May Studio" for the Banff Centre for the Fine Arts from 1984 to 1993 and is the author of over eight books of poetry of his own. His collection "Forests of the medieval world" (1993) was awarded the Governor-General's Award for Poetry. He received the Trillium Book Award for his collection "Kurgan". His poem "Driving in the car with her" was included in the Arvon International Poetry Competition Anthology. He is also the author of the novel "Doctor Bloom's story." "How we all swiftly," an anthology of his first six books of poetry, was published in 2006; an autobiographical work entitled "A dropped glove in Regent Street" appeared in 2007 and a collection of poetry, "Where we might have been," was published in 2010. Don Coles died on 29 November 2017.

Coles, Rev. V.S.S.

(from Wikipedia entry)

Vincent Stuckey Stratton Coles (27 March 1845 – 9 June 1929) was an Anglican priest, who served as Principal of Pusey House, Oxford from 1897 to 1909. Coles was educated at Eton College before studying at the University of Oxford as a member of Balliol College, Oxford, where he obtained a third-class degree. He was ordained as a priest in the Church of England, and was assistant curate at Wantage (at that time in the county of Berkshire) from 1869 until his appointment as rector of Shepton Beauchamp, Somerset, in 1872. When Pusey House was founded in Oxford 1884, he left Somerset to become one of its three librarians, later serving as chaplain (1885 onwards) then Principal (1897 to 1909). He also served as curate at Shepton Beauchamp from 1886 to 1897. From 1920 to 1920,[clarification needed] he was Warden of the Sisterhood of the Epiphany in Truro, Cornwall. He was an honorary canon of Christ Church from 1913. His publications consisted of some sermons, meditations and lectures. He died on 9 June 1929.
He was the author of three hymns "O Shepherd of the sheep", "Ye who own the faith of Jesus", and "We pray thee, heavenly Father" (nos. 190, 218 & 334 in The English Hymnal).
His obituary in The Times said that he had a "kindly humorous understanding of young men" and "exercised a wide influence in the University", with many people across the world, both clergy and laity, owing much to his guidance.

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at: .

Collier, Hon. John Maler

(from Wikipedia entry)

The Honourable John Maler Collier OBE RP ROI (27 January 1850 – 11 April 1934) was a leading English artist, and an author. He painted in the Pre-Raphaelite style, and was one of the most prominent portrait painters of his generation. Both his marriages were to daughters of Thomas Henry Huxley. He studied painting at the Munich Academy where he enrolled on 14 April 1875 (Register: 3145) at the age of 25.Collier was from a talented and successful family. His grandfather, John
Collier, was a Quaker merchant who became a Member of Parliament. His father (who was a Member of Parliament, Attorney General and, for many years, a full-time judge of the Privy Council) was created the first Lord Monkswell. He was also a member of the Royal Society of British Artists. John Collier's elder brother, the second Lord Monkswell, was Under-Secretary of State for War and Chairman of the London County Council. In due course, Collier became an integral part of the family of Thomas Henry Huxley PC, President of the Royal Society
from 1883 to 1885. Collier married two of Huxley's daughters and was
"on terms of intimate friendship" with his son, the writer Leonard Huxley. Collier's first wife, in 1879, was Marian (Mady) Huxley. She was a painter who studied, like her husband, at the Slade and exhibited at the Royal Academy and elsewhere. After the birth of their only child, a daughter, she suffered severe post-natal depression and was taken to Paris for treatment where, however, she contracted pneumonia and died in 1887.
In 1889 Collier married Mady's younger sister Ethel Huxley. Until the Deceased Wife's Sister's Marriage Act 1907
such a marriage was not possible in England, so the ceremony took place
in Norway. Collier's daughter by his first marriage, Joyce, was a
portrait miniaturist, and a member of the Royal Society of Miniature
Painters. By his second wife he had a daughter and a son, Sir Laurence Collier, who was the British Ambassador to Norway 1941–51.

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at: .

Committee for an Independent Canada

The Committee for an Independent Canada was established in 1970 by Walter Gordon, Peter Newman and Abraham Rotstein to promote Canadian economic and cultural independence. Many of the proposals offered by the Committee were eventually made into government policy including the establishment of the Foreign Investment Review Committee, the Canadian Development Corporation, and Petro Canada. The Committee was disbanded in 1981.

Communist Party of Canada

The Communist Party of Canada was founded in 1921 as a secret society and became a public party in 1924. Banned in 1940, it re-surfaced as the Labour-Progressive Party, returning to its proper designation in the latter part of the decade. Influential in trade unions, the Communist Party has had its greatest electoral successes in municipal politics, particularly in Winnipeg. It has suffered setbacks in the 1950s with the denunciation of Stalin and again in the 1980s with the decline of Communist parties in Russia and former Soviet-bloc countries.

Connelly, Karen, 1969-

Karen Connelly, poet, author and photographer, was born in Calgary, Alberta in 1969 and is the author of several books of nonfiction, fiction and poetry. Her novel "The Lizard Cage", was nominated for the 2006 Kiriyama Prize for fiction. She has read from and lectured on her work in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Connelly lived for many years in Burma and Thailand and has residences in Canada and Greece. Her best-selling book, "Touch the Dragon : a Thai journal", recounts her year spent in Thailand at the age of seventeen. It was awarded the Governor General's Award for Non-Fiction in 1993 and was a New York Times Notable Travel Book of the Year in 2002. Her other books include the poetry collections "Grace and Poison", "This Brighter Prison", The Disorder of Love", and "The Small Words in My Body", which won the Pat Lowther Award for poetry in 1991. She is also the author of the memoir "One Room in a Castle", which recounts her travels in Spain, Greece and France. Connelly currently lives in Toronto, Ontario, where she teaches creative writing at Humber College.

Constable, F.C.

  • Person
  • fl. 1908 - 1913

According to Nina Cust, F.C. Contable was the author of "Personality and Telepathy," "The Divine Law of Human Being" amongst other works. Associated with the Society for Psychical Research.

Conybeare, Frank Cornwallis

(from Wikipedia and ODNB entries)

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare (1856–1924), biblical and Armenian scholar, was born at Coulsdon, Surrey, on 14 September 1856, the third son of John Charles Conybeare (1818/19–1884), barrister, of Coulsdon, and his wife, Mary Catharine, née Vansittart. He was educated at Tonbridge School from 1868 to 1876 (his father having moved to Tonbridge), and in January 1876 he proceeded with a scholarship to University College, Oxford. He resigned from the college in 1887 to focus on his research and the Armenian language.

He was elected fellow of his college in 1880 and praelector in philosophy and history. ON 12 December 1883 he married Mary Emily (1882-1886), the second daughter of Friedrich Max Müller, the philologist; she accompanied him on his travels and assisted him in translating R. H. Lotze's Outlines of a Philosophy of Religion (1892). He married secondly, in Nice on 22 January 1888, Jane (1859/60–1934), daughter of Edward Macdowell of Belfast; they had one son and one daughter.

The frankness with which Conybeare expressed his opinions endeared him to his friends but involved him in controversies. Having obtained private information about the Dreyfus affair Conybeare published in 1898 his much noticed pro-Dreyfus book, The Dreyfus Case. In 1904 he joined the Rationalist Press Association, which published his Myth, Magic, and Morals, a Study of Christian Origins (1909); its somewhat cynical scepticism elicited a rejoinder from William Sanday in A New Marcion (1909). But Conybeare also attacked the rationalist school, which denied the historicity of Jesus Christ, in The Historical Christ, published by the same association in 1914.

Soon after the outbreak of war in 1914 Conybeare, against the advice of friends, wrote a letter in reply to Professor Kuno Meyer in which he blamed the outbreak of war on Sir Edward Grey and H. H. Asquith.

He died at his home, 21 Trinity Gardens, Folkestone, Kent, on 9 January 1924.

For more information, see Wikipedia entry at: and Oxford Dictionary of National Biography entry here: .

Conybeare, Mary Emily

  • Person
  • 1882-1886

Mary Emily Müller was the second daughter of the philologist Friedrich Max Müller and his wife Georgina Adelaide Grenfell. She married Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare (1856-1924) on 12 December 1883. She accompanied him on his travels and assisted him in translating R. H. Lotze's Outlines of a Philosophy of Religion (1892). She was also a translator for the works of Wilhelm Scherer.

Cook, Ramsay, 1931-2016

George Ramsay Cook (1931-2016), educator and author, was born in Alameda, Saskatchewan to a United Church minister and his wife. He earned his BA at the University of Manitoba (1954), his MA at Queen's University (1956), and his PhD at the University of Toronto (1960) with a dissertation on John W. Dafoe. Cook joined the History Department at York University in 1969 following ten years as a member of the History Department of the University of Toronto. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, an Officer of the Order of Canada, and received the Governor General's Award for non-fiction in 1985. Among numerous other awards and recognition, in 2005 Cook was the recipient of the Molson Prize in the Social Sciences & Humanities. Cook authored several studies in the field of Canadian history including "The politics of John W. Dafoe and the Free press" (1963), "Canada and the French Canadian question" (1966), "The Maple leaf forever" (1971), "Canada 1896-1921: a nation transformed", with R.C. Brown, (1975), "The regenerators: social criticism in late Victorian Canada" (1985), "Canada, Quebec and the uses of nationalism" (1986), and several other books, articles and studies. Cook also played a part in Canadian politics, promoting a strong federal government. Cook and other academics publicly supported Pierre Elliott Trudeau's bid for the leadership of the Liberal Party of Canada in 1968. His last book was "The Teeth of Time" (2006), a memoir focussed on his friendship with Pierre Elliott Trudeau. From 1989 until 2006 he served as executive editor of the Dictionary of Canadian Biography/Dictionnaire biographique du Canada.

Coombs, David

  • Person

David Coombs was a student at McLaughlin College from 1968 to 1977. He served on the first two college councils and the first presidential search committee to select a successor to Murray Ross, the first president of York University. In 1970, he prepared a history of the early years of the university and interviewed the founding members of the original McLaughlin College council.

Cooper, Barry

Fraser Barry Cooper (1943- ) is a professor of political science at the University of Calgary. He formerly taught at York University (1970-1981) in the Department of Political Science as well as at Duke University (1967), where he obtained the PhD (1969), and at Bishop's College (1968-1970). Cooper is the author of several books including 'Deconfederation: Canada without Quebec' (1991) with David Jay Bercuson, 'Action into nature: an essay on the meaning of technology,' (1989), 'The end of history,' (1984), 'Merleau-Ponty and Marxism,' (1981) and others.

Cooper-Clark, Diana

Diana Cooper-Clark is a professor, university administrator and author. Born in Kingston, Jamaica, she was educated in Canada receiving a B.Ed. from the University of Toronto and a B.A., M.A., B.F.A. and Ph.D. from York University. Cooper-Clark began teaching at York in 1970 as contract faculty, eventually becoming Chair of the Department of English, Atkinson (1998-2000) and Coordinator, English, School of Arts and Letters, Atkinson (2000-2001). More recently, she has taken on the roles of Associate Professor and Master of Atkinson Faculty of Liberal and Professional Studies and is a cross-appointed professor in the Division of the Humanities/Arts. Cooper-Clark has participated in numerous writers' conferences and workshops in Canada, India and Jamaica as an organizer, moderator, presenter, and panelist. She has won four teaching awards, two of which are national awards for teaching excellence and educational leadership: Canadian CASE Professor of the Year (1995) and the 3M Teaching Fellowship Award (2000). Professor Cooper-Clark has published three books, "Designs of Darkness: Interviews with Detective Novelists", "Interviews with Contemporary Novelists", and "Dreams of Re-Creation in Jamaica: The Holocaust, Internment, Jewish Refugees in Gibraltar Camp, Jamaican Jews and Sephardim".

Corbet, Rev. R.W.

  • Person
  • fl. 1880-1900

Author of "Letters of a Mystic of the Present Day."

Council of the York Student Federation

The Council of the York Student Federation began in 1968 as the York Student Council, changing its name in 1969 to Council of the York Student Federation. In 1990 its name was changed again, this time to the York Federation of Students. Prior to 1968, the York Student Representative Council had served the interests of students at the university. Originally made up of students from the three colleges (Founders, Vanier, Winters) and the two faculties (Graduate Studies, Administrative Studies), with an invitation of membership to faculty, the Federation is currently comprised of all students in the Faculties of Arts, Fine Arts, Education, and Pure and Applied Science and the undergraduate students in the Faculty of Administrative Studies. Associate members include students in Osgoode Hall Law School, Glendon and Atkinson colleges. The Federation is governed by a Board of Directors comprised of an elected President, Secretary and Treasurer, and representatives of the constituent members. In addition there are vice presidents for external relations, finance, internal relations, equality and social affairs, and commissioners for health care and clubs.
The purpose of the Federation is to represent the interests of the student members within the university community and with various external bodies (Ontario Federation of Students, etc), to serve as a communications and information service for the student body, and to administer social, cultural, athletic and business operations of the Federation on behalf of students.

Courthope, William John, 1842-1917

  • Person
  • 1842-1917

William John Courthope (July 17, 1842 – April 10, 1917), was an English writer and historian of poetry. Apart from many contributions to higher journalism, his literary career is associated mainly with his continuation of the edition of Alexander Pope's works, begun by Whitwell Elwin, which appeared in ten volumes from 1871-1889; his life of Addison (Men of Letters series, 1882); his Liberal Movement in English Literature (1885); and his tenure of the professorship of Poetry at Oxford (1895-1901), which resulted in his elaborate History of English Poetry (the first volume appearing in 1895), and his Life in Poetry (1901). He deals with the history of English poetry as a whole, and in its unity as a result of the national spirit and thought in succeeding ages, and attempts to bring the great poets into relation with this. In 1887 he was appointed a civil service commissioner, being first commissioner in 1892, and being made a CB. He was made an honorary fellow of his old college at Oxford in 1896, and was given the honorary degrees of D.Litt by Durham in 1895 and of LL.D by Edinburgh University in 1898.

Courtney, Richard, 1927-1997

Richard Courtney, drama teacher and theatre scholar, was born in Newmarket, England on 4 June 1927 and was educated at Culford School and Leeds University. Between the years 1948 and 1952, Courtney, studied at Leeds with Shakespeare scholar G. Wilson Knight and Pirandello scholar and translator Frederick May. On 21 December 1953, he married Maureen Rosemary Gale. While attending Leeds, Courtney directed and appeared in a number of theatre productions and upon graduation continued his this endeavor with the Arts Theatre in Leeds and the Rep Theatre in Yorkshire. From 1956 to1960, he played various roles on BBC radio. Between 1952 and 1959 he taught drama at schools in England before becoming Senior Lecturer in Drama at Trent Park College of Education in 1959, a position he would retain until 1967. From 1968 to 1971, he was Associate Professor of Theatre at the University of Victoria, British Columbia and was Professor of Drama from 1971 to 1974 at the University of Calgary. While in Calgary, Courtney also directed theatre and served as President of the Canadian Child and Youth Drama Association as well as being an advisor to the Minster of Culture, Andre Fortier. In 1974 he was appointed Professor of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education and the University of Toronto Graduate Centre for Drama. He maintained these positions until his retirement in 1995. In 1975 he traveled to New Mexico to research the dramatic rituals of the Hopi and the Navajo nations. He visited the University of Melbourne in 1970 and 1974 and was a Visiting Fellow in the Spring of 1979 at the Melbourne State College, Victoria. Above all Richard Courtney was a well respected drama theorist. He wrote extensively on the subject and has roughly one hundred published works to his name including Drama for Youth (1964), Teaching Drama (1965), The School Play (1966), The Drama Studio (1967), Play, Drama and Thought (1968), The Dramatic Curriculum (1980). In addition, he was also responsible for numerous reports and journal articles touching on such subjects as educational drama, drama therapy, arts education, criticism and the history of drama. Courtney lectured extensively in Australia, Canada, the UK and the US. He was President of the Canadian Conference of the Arts, 1973-1976 and Chairman of the National Inquiry into Arts and Education in Canada, 1975-1979. Richard Courtney died on Saltspring Island, British Columbia on 16 August 1997.

Courtney, W.L.

(from Wikipedia and ODNB entries)

William Leonard Courtney (5 January 1850 – 1 November 1928) was an English philosopher and journalist, born at Poona, India on 5 January 1850, the youngest of three sons and three daughters of William Courtney, a member of the Indian Civil Service and his wife Ann Edwardes, the daughter of Captain Edward Scott of the Royal Navy.

Educated at Somerset College in Bath under Revd Hay Sweet Escott before attending Oxford from 1868 to 1872. In 1873 he became headmaster of Somersetshire College, Bath, and in 1894 editor of the Fortnightly Review. He married in 1874 Cordelia Blanche Place, daughter of Commander Lionel Place of the Royal Navy. The couple had three daughters and four sons. Cordelia died in 1907. In 1911 he married Janet Elizabeth Hogarth (Janet E. Courtney), a scholar, writer and feminist, born in Barton-on-Humber (27 November 1865 - 24 September 1954).

Courtney worked for thirty-eight years in Fleet Street writing general articles and later became the chief thetre critic and literary editor of the "Daily Telegraph" (a post he held until 1925), as well as writing a weekly "Book of the Day" column. In 1890-1891 he edited "Murray's Magazine" but later moved to become editor of the "Fortnightly Review" in 1894.

Published works include:

Studies on Philosophy (1882)
Constructive Ethics (1886)
Studies New and Old (1888)
Life of John Stuart Mill (1889)
The Idea of Tragedy (1900)
The Development of Maeterlinck (1904)
The Feminine Note in Fiction (1904)
Rosemary's Letter Book (1909)
In Search of Egeria (1911).

For more information, see entries in Wikipedia at: and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography at:

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